What is a DNS?

What is a DNS? How Domain Name System Works

The internet connects us to information, entertainment, and communication globally, making it a part of our lives that we cannot do without. Have you ever paused to think of how your computer actually finds the websites that you visit? This magic trick is powered by the Domain Name System (DNS), which makes browsing through the internet as simple as anything.

This article aims to provide detailed explanations about DNS, how it works, and its importance in Internet communication. We’ll provide a basic understanding for beginners and take those who want more details further.

What Is A DNS? 

Think of millions of unique IP addresses as a vast city with millions of residents (websites). These are long series of numbers like that humans find difficult to recall or spell out. Let’s be honest, you did not even read the whole number! This is where DNS comes in.

The term DNS is an abbreviation for Domain Name System, which acts as an Internet phonebook: translating human-readable domain names like google.com or wikipedia.org into corresponding numerical IP addresses used by computers to locate and connect to websites which ease accessibility and improves user-friendliness.

How Does DNS Work?

The magic happens behind the scenes in quick steps:

  • User Request: It begins when you enter a website address (domain name) in your web browser, e.g., “www.amazon.com,” which will lead you to Amazon’s website.
  • Checking the Local DNS Cache: Before venturing out, your device first checks its local DNS cache. This cache has temporary records of recently visited sites and their respective numeric IP addresses. If you’ve accessed Amazon.com recently, the IP address might be readily available here, saving you time.
  • Consulting the Local Resolver: If it isn’t found in the cache above, this request goes to your local DNS resolver. The local DNS resolver, commonly operated by the internet service provider (ISP), serves as a middleman for your request, initiating recursive searches for the IP address associated with the domain name.
  • Navigating the DNS Hierarchy: It’s not all about storing everything in one place. Starting with root name servers, which are like central telephone directories, the role of the Root Name Server is simply pointing out where it belongs to the Top-Level Domain (TLD) nameserver. 

TLDs are those suffixes that come after a domain nam, such as “.com”, “.org” and “.net”. Each TLD, also known as domain extension has its dedicated nameserver, which manages only that kind of domains.

Following directions from the root server, the resolver questions TLD namesever (e.g., if we talk about amazon.com, then it asks .com).

  • Reaching the Authoritative Nameserver: Then finally, the TLD nameserver guides the resolver toward the authoritative nameserver, which manages DNS records for that domain name amazon.com in this case. The authoritative nameserver contains the true IP Address related to the domain name.
  • Delivering the Answer: Finally, an authoritative named server gets back to you via your resolver on what IP address corresponds to amazon.com.
  • Caching and Completion: The resolver also stores this information to be used in the future, and then it sends back your device’s IP address. Thus, your screen can now connect with the Amazon’s website using this IP address.

This entire process often takes place within milliseconds, making access to websites seem instantaneous.

DNS for Internet Communication

There are different aspects of internet functioning where DNS has an important function:

  • User-friendliness: It makes navigating the internet easier for people by converting complex IP addresses into memorable domain names.
  • Global Accessibility: Regardless of server location, DNS enables easy access to web pages across various geographical boundaries.
  • Data Redundancy and Load Balancing: Website traffic can be efficiently spread over several points to prevent failure or overload by configuring DNS to point a given single domain name to multiple servers.
  • Security: Protection against malware-redirected malicious queries and other security risks may include Domain Name System Security Extensions (DNSSEC) for verifying data authenticity and integrity on the DNS platform.

Take Control of Your Web3 Presence with Freename DNS!

The future of the internet is decentralization, and Web3 technologies are paving the way for a more open and user-controlled web experience. Domain names play a crucial role in Web3, acting as your identity and gateway to decentralized applications (dApps), marketplaces, and the metaverse.

Freename provides Web3 DNS that can be used to resolve any Web3 domain directly in the browser.

Frequently Asked Questions About DNS

What is a DNS address?

A different term for a domain name is a DNS address. It is the readable version of an IP address. However, although technically being one thing as well as another and the same thing as a domain name, “domain name” is more common among users because it is less technical.

Think about “https://www.google.com” or “https://www.wikipedia.org”: using these names rather than remembering complicated strings of numbers called internet protocol addresses makes it easier for us to browse websites.

What is a DNS provider?

A network of DNS servers operated and maintained by an organization forms a provider. They store and manage records, which convert domain names into respective IP addresses.

There are two main categories under which these providers fall:

  • Internet Service Provider (ISP) DNS – Most people who connect their devices over the internet use their own ISP’s assigned default settings for resolving domain names without knowing of any alternative.
  • Alternative Public DNS Servers—Several firms, including Google and Cloudflare, offer public DNS services without charging. Users can replace their ISP’s default settings with these servers for enhanced reliability, not necessarily always speed.

What is a Domain Name System name?

Simply put, a domain name (DNS) is the human-readable web address you type into your browser. It comprises of two main components:

  • A second-level domain (SLD): This identifies an individual website, e.g., “Google” in https://www.google.com.
  • Top-Level Domain (TLD): The suffix at the end of a domain name that denotes its purpose or category. Common TLDs include .com (for commercial), .org (for organization), .net (for network), .edu(for educational) among others.

What is a private DNS?

Some organizations offer their own private DNS service, which allows users to encrypt their queries. By doing this, they can prevent their browsing activity from being seen by third parties, including ISPs, who may want to know what sites were visited by customers using their network connections. It should be noted that while private domain name systems has some security considerations, it is not always necessary or effective depending on one’s requirement and threat model.

What is a DNS server?

A specialized computer that holds and manages Domain Name System records is known as a DNS server. It lies between your device and the website you are accessing, meaning there exist several types of servers within the resolution process.

There are root nameservers. Root nameservers are these central servers located at the highest point of the hierarchy that act as entry points into the resolution process.On the other hand, top-level domain nameservers are responsible for managing DNS records for particular TLDs, eg. com or org.

These are authoritative name servers. They store and maintain actual IP addresses associated with a specific website domain name or its host, and they are normally managed by either domain owners or their service providers. For instance, recursive resolvers like those run by your ISP start a recursive query to find an IP address pertaining to a certain hostname by probing different levels of the DNS hierarchy on your behalf.

Latest News:

Fill the info to receive the PDF guide

Stay up to date!

How does it work?

Accordingly to the day when you will finalise your purchase, you have the right to receive from 1 to 3 NFT Domains for FREE!

Once you have completed your order, within 48h you will automatically receive on www.freename.io platform, in your personal area “portfolio” the randomly assigned NFT Domain/s.

You can chose on which blockchain you want to mint on and minting fee is covered by Freename!


Once you have added your favorite items to the cart, you proceed to “checkout” and add your coupon to the “coupon box”.

Said coupon will instantly do its magic and your due total will drop!


How does it work?

Once you have completed your order, you will automatically receive on www.freename.io platform, in your personal area “portfolio” the randomly assigned NFT Domain value $50 or if you’re lucky a randomly assigned TLD with value $699 (between these: .immersive; .multiverse; .freelancer; .cashback; .hologram)

you can chose on which blockchain you want to mint your NFT Domain/TLD on and minting fee is covered by Freename!


Fill in the form to Apply

Want to work with us? Let us know!

Why do i Need a Wallet?

Freename domains are blockchain-based assets and would be minted and stored using a wallet. Users are required to mint and manage their domains using a Metamask or Coinbase-configured wallet. It must be a non-custodial wallet, meaning that one must own the private keys to the wallet in order to approve transactions via a signature.

To benefit from Freename Web 3 domains/TLDs, you must have a wallet. This is because Web 3 domains/TLDs are blockchain-based assets. Users can mint and manage their domains using Metamask or Coinbase-configured wallets.

Keep in mind that it must be a non-custodial wallet. You own the private keys to the wallet (in order to approve transactions via a signature).

Are the Domains Associated with ICANN?

ICANN does not manage freename.io domains. Freename.io believes their TLDs/domains must allow customers to operate independently. Freename.io wants to build a utility infrastructure, allowing customers to use their services for valuable and generative purposes. By leveraging blockchain technology, Freename Web 3 domains/TLDs have no centralized authority imposing rules and regulations.

What is a Wallet?

Every blockchain user requires a wallet in order to interact with the network. A wallet is essentially an account on the blockchain where transactions can be sent and received. It is also where one can store blockchain assets such as cryptocurrency or NFTs (non-fungible tokens). There is no personal information associated with a wallet and none is required to create one. A wallet consists of a public key and a private key. The public key can be safely shared with anyone who wishes to send assets to the corresponding wallet, however, the private key should not be shared and is the key to accessing the wallet in the event where access is lost or to create another instance.

A crypto wallet (cryptocurrency wallet) is software or hardware that enables users to store and use cryptocurrency. With cryptocurrencies, there isn’t any actual money to carry around in a wallet. They exist on the blockchain. Similarly to traditional bank transfers, crypto wallets enable users to send and receive cryptocurrencies, NFTs, etc.

A wallet consists of a public key and a private key. To receive assets, you share your public key associated with your wallet. You should NEVER share your private key.

How do i Claim my Earnings from Freename

ou can withdraw revenues generated passively through a cryptocurrency transfer. Connect your cryptocurrency wallet and, once your withdrawal request is confirmed, the desired amount is pulled from Freename’s reserves and conveniently delivered to you!

Claim your earnings by following these steps:

  1. Connect your cryptocurrency wallet to Freename.io
  2. Request a withdrawal
  3. Receive request confirmation
  4. Receive withdrawal directly to your wallet.

Can i Transfer Domains?

Yes. The domain is stored in your cryptocurrency wallet and can be transferred by you after you have minted it. Access your portfolio, select the TLD or Domain you wish to transfer and type the recipient’s address. Afterwards, you must paste the OTP code you received by mail to confirm the transaction. Keep in mind that currently, it is not possible to import the domain that has been transferred, but it will be possible soon!

Yes. Domains are transferable ONLY after a TLD/domain has been minted and stored in a user’s wallet.

To transfer the TLD (or domain), the user must:

  • Access their wallet
  • Select the item they want to transfer
  • Enter the recipient’s address.
  • Confirm the transaction by pasting the OTP received by email

In the future, Freename.io will support importing domains that have been transferred.

What about Trademarks?

Registering a trademark on your Freename Web3 TLD will allow you to protect your web3 TLD and your logo worldwide juridically.

From the moment you deposit a trademark request, your web3 TLD will be protected worldwide for 6 months awaiting for the Swiss Federal Institute of Intellectual Property (IGE.ch) to confirm and register the availability of your TLD.****

A trademark is any symbol, phrase, or word that allows customers to identify a company’s goods or services. Freename is a web3 domain/TLD provider that also provides trademark registration.

A user must reach out to the trademark department to register a trademark. To get your trademark filed for review at the Swiss Federal Institute of Intellectual Property, a user must provide the following:

  1. Complete a Know your customer (KYC)
  2. A list of TLDs they wish to trademark
  3. Proof of payment

Once these conditions are met, it takes one week for the trademark to be reviewed and logo/TLDs to be provided with six months of worldwide protection.

Is Minting the same as Buying?

Purchasing a TLD (or domain) on Freename and minting it on the blockchain are two distinct steps. When you purchase a TLD (or domain), the transaction is recorded in Freename’s database and not on the blockchain. Minting a TLD (or domain) on the blockchain requires a second step: log into the user’s personal area, select the TLD (or domain) and press “mint TLD” (or domain): done! Don’t worry, once you have purchased a Freename domain, no one can take it away from you!

No. Buying and Minting a TLD/domain are two different things.**

Buying **is the process of recording a transaction on Freename’s database and not on the blockchain.

Minting is the process of pushing a user’s domain from Freename.io data onto the public ledger of a blockchain and into a user’s wallet. Giving the user full control over the TLD/domain.

It is very easy to mint a domain/TLD once you purchase it. Simply:

  • Log into your personal area
  • Select the TLD (or domain)
  • Press “mint TLD” (or domain)

What is Domain Minting?

Minting is the process of publishing a Freename domain (or TLD) on the blockchain via your wallet to gain full custody of the domain. This means that the only person that has control over the domain (or TLD) is the person who controls (has access to) the wallet.

Minting is the process of pushing a user’s domain from Freename.io data onto the public ledger of a blockchain and into a user’s wallet. Giving the user full ownership over the domain.

Minting on Freename.io is as simple as the following steps:

  1. Go to the Freename.io website
  2. Enter the TLD/domain you want to buy in the search bar
  3. Add the TLD/domain to your cart
  4. Go to checkout
  5. Create a Freename.io account
  6. Purchase the TLD/domain with cryptocurrency or a credit card
  7. Go to “portfolio and incomes.”
  8. Click on mint TLD/domain

Which domains are Protected?

Protected domains and TLDs are domains and TLDs that we’ve detected are associated with a brand, organization, or notable person. We believe it is important to increase adoption for the next generation of the internet by helping to onboard brands into the Web3 era. If you are interested in applying for a Protected domain, please contact us.

TLDs/Domains associated with a notable person, brand or organization are considered Protected Domains. Protected domains help onboard brands in Web 3 increasing adoption. Protected domains also protect users from others impersonating/stealing their domains.

Reach out to Freename.io to apply for a protected domain.

Why use Freename?

Freename domains are unique by their very nature: only with Freename you can register domains with unique TLDs for your digital identity while passively earning money!

Freename.io is not only the leading TLD and Domains platform in Web 3, but also lets users generate passive income!

Owning a Freename Web 3 TLD entitles users to receive passive income whenever a domain is bought on their TLD. Users can register and mint TLD/domains of their choice if available.

What is a Domain?

A domain name is a string of letters and/or numbers that points to the IP address of the corresponding website. Generally, it is easier to remember a name than a long string of numbers.

A domain name is an address that people type into a browser bar to find a website. It consists of a Top-Level Domain (TLD), everything that comes after the dot, and the Second-Level Domain (SLD), everything that comes before the dot.

For example, “Freename.io” is the domain name, “Freename” is the SLD and “io” is the TLD.

Which Chains are Supported?

Freename has a multi-chain approach. You can choose on which Blockchain to mint your Web3 Domains and TLDs ranging Among Polygon, Cronos, and Binance.

A user can mint a Freename.io domain/TLD on the following blockchains:

  • Polygon
  • Cronos
  • Binance

Freename plans to expand its multi-chain approach by adding blockchains upon which domains can be minted.

Are there Renewal Fees?

No! Once you’ve bought a Freename Domain or TLD, it’s yours forever, no renewal fees ever!

No. There are no renewal fees on Freename.io. Once a user has paid a one-time payment for a domain/TLD, they own it. Forever.

This is the significant advantage of Web 3 domain/TLD over traditional alternatives.

Ask Away!