How Does DNS Resolution for Web3 Domains Work?

How DNS Resolution for Web3 Domains Works

Every webpage is basically a long string of numbers. But that is the kind of mayhem from which the Domain Name System (DNS) rescues us.

It’s the internet’s phonebook and helps convert domain names (which are easier for humans to remember) into numerical IP addresses (which computers use to communicate). The Domain Name System (DNS) has played a crucial role in the Internet since the Web2 era and it’s always been responsible for the prompt and accurate direction of our digital requests.

The advent of Web3 has simply made DNS much more important than it already is, in a different way. Web3 brings forward a distributed internet in which people control their data and blockchain technology guarantees openness and security. In this ecosystem, the Web3 domain is the key to a new type of digital ownership and identification; it is more than just an address.

This article will explain how to resolve Web3 domains using DNS and offer some understanding of how this vital infrastructure is changing to meet the needs of a decentralized internet. We will also demonstrate the technologies that let Web3 domains answer DNS requests.

Understanding Web3 Domains

Web3 domains represent a change in the dynamics of domain ownership and the subsequent generation of internet addresses. These domains are constructed on the same blockchain that underpins digital currencies such as Bitcoin and Ethereum. You can use a Web3 domain for more than just pointing to websites; it can also serve as a digital identity and be used to receive cryptocurrency directly.

Differences Between Web2 and Web3 Domains

Web3 domains are very different from Web2 domains. The Domain Name System (DNS) functions as an intermediary in Web2 that controls the allocation of IP addresses. Though effective, it concentrates power in the hands of a small elite.

In contrast, Web3 domains operate on a distributed model. Because the blockchain disperses the data among multiple computers and it’s based on the concept of tokenization, there is no central authority. This makes Web3 domains more resistant to attacks and ensures that they cannot be arbitrarily taken away from you giving you full control over your identity and space.

How you get these domains is another significant distinction. It is common practice to pay an annual fee to maintain your Web2 domain. On the other hand, Web3 domains are permanent; once you buy them, you own them forever. Once you add it to your digital identity, you won’t have to worry about renewal notices or payments again.

The Importance of Decentralization in Web3 Domains

Web3 domains are distinct due to their distributed nature. The idea is to disperse power rather than store it centrally. And this has a number of advantages.

First, it strengthens the system’s ability to withstand failure; when one node in the network goes down, the others continue to function normally. With no overarching authority to pry into users’ lives, it offers them greater autonomy and privacy.

As another benefit of Web3’s decentralization, users can participate in important policy matters. They have a voice in network decisions and can even get perks for making the network more secure and efficient. Because of this, the network becomes community-driven, and everyone’s success is directly tied to the network’s.

The Role of DNS in Web3

If you’re familiar with the classic web, you know DNS resolution is analogous to requesting directions. By converting the domain name into an IP address—essentially a pinpoint on the internet map, DNS directs your browser to the desired website when you enter its name into your browser.

Several servers and processes are involved in this process, such as a DNS recursor, root nameserver, TLD nameserver, and authoritative nameserver.

Consider instead a scenario in which all users, rather than a single entity, are in charge of this method of requesting guidance. That is the use case for blockchain-based DNS resolution. 

Unlike traditional methods, this one doesn’t depend on a single authority to provide directions online, just like Freename provides a DNS for Web3 that can resolve any domain name directly in your browser without the requirement for any other plugins or add-ons.

DNS Resolution

Blockchain technology is used to store data across a network of computers regarding domain names and their associated IP addresses. Because of this, the data is accessible to everyone, impenetrable, and error-proof.

The Function of Smart Contracts in DNS Resolution for Web3

This decentralized DNS system relies heavily on smart contracts. In a way, they serve as Web3’s regulations. Without a human intermediary, smart contracts can perform transactions automatically when specific circumstances are satisfied. 

Smart contracts can handle the registration, renewal, and transfer of ownership of domain names on the blockchain within the framework of DNS resolution. Their diligent attention to detail guarantees that the procedure is open and reliable.

How DNS Resolution for Web3 Domains Works Step by Step

DNS Resolution

Web3 domain names initiate a chain reaction that culminates in the display of the requested website in the user’s browser. In the same way that you might ask a store clerk for directions, your request will go to multiple digital places before arriving at the correct address.

But how does Web3’s DNS resolution function in practice? Here is the process:

Step 1: Query initiation

The process begins with entering a Web3 domain into a browser that is compatible with DNS resolution based on blockchain technology. In order to find the real address of the website, your browser takes on the role of a detective.

Step 2: Blockchain search

The browser communicates with a blockchain network rather than a conventional domain name system (DNS) server. The blockchain stores all the information about Web3 domains in a huge, secure ledger. No one party can compromise it because it is decentralized and impossible to mess with.

Step 3: Smart contract execution

In order to access the domain information kept in their “books,” or the blockchain ledger, smart contracts use the blockchain. The smart contract will get the IP address associated with the domain if it finds it.

Step 4: Obtaining an IP address

The smart contract will communicate the domain’s IP address to the browser once it has verified it. Important as it is, this IP address is a numerical designation that pinpoints the exact location of the website on the internet.

Step 5: Connection establishment

Now that your browser has the IP address, it may connect to the website. It is as if you have been waiting for the party directions and have finally found them.

In this video, Patrick explains how the Freename Web3 DNS works and how it resolves domains in depth:

Technologies Enabling DNS Resolution in Web3

We have taken a look at the inner workings of Web3 DNS resolution. But we should also note that new technology advancements are also simplifying things. Important technologies for Web3 DNS resolution include IPFS and ENS, or Ethereum Name Service. 

Domain Name System Distributed (DDNS)

The DDNS is an alternative to a centralized server that processes domain name system inquiries is a network of nodes, which is known as a decentralized DNS system. By using blockchain, decentralized DNS systems ensure that records are stored across a network of nodes, making them resistant to tampering and centralized control. This distributed approach enhances security and reliability, as there is no single point of failure.

In decentralized DNS systems, users can assign human-readable names to their wallet addresses. This simplifies the process of transferring and receiving cryptocurrency, reducing the risk of errors associated with long and complex addresses. These user-friendly names make cryptocurrency transactions more accessible and user-friendly.

InterPlanetary File System (IPFS)

IPFS is a decentralized network where users can access and exchange files, webpages, apps, and data. In order to remove all possible barriers to file sharing, IPFS creates a decentralized network where users can communicate directly with one another, doing away with the necessity for central servers. Web3 domains are essential for hosting decentralized websites and apps.

Content-Addressable Networks (CANs)

The content-addressable network (CAN) is a distributed system that can store and retrieve data regardless of its physical location. With a CAN, content retrieval is made possible by directing queries via the network. 

Each node stores material addressable by its cryptographic hash. As a general rule, Web3 configurations use CANs in conjunction with decentralized DNS and peer-to-peer protocols to make content resolution and discovery easier.

Protocols Involved in the Process

The protocols that enable these technologies to function are the skeleton of Web3’s DNS resolution.

For example, The InterPlanetary File System (IPFS) uses a protocol called libp2p (library peer-to-peer), which handles network communications in a distributed environment. This protocol allows nodes to discover each other and communicate directly, facilitating the retrieval of content addressed by a unique identifier rather than a location. This means that when you access a Web3 domain, the content can be served from anywhere in the network, not just a specific server.

Web3 Domain Resolution: The Future Is Here

Web3’s DNS resolution is a truly revolutionary new feature that changes the way domain names are handled and resolved. Using blockchain technology, it creates a decentralized system that makes sure name ownership is clear and safe.

Technologies like IPFS are not just improvements in technology; they are also the building blocks of a more open internet. These advancements have the potential to change the way we interact online by making it safer and more user-centric. As these technologies become more integrated into our digital lives, they promise to pave the way for a more secure, transparent, and decentralized web. This transformation could redefine the internet, creating a more equitable digital landscape for all users.

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Accordingly to the day when you will finalise your purchase, you have the right to receive from 1 to 3 NFT Domains for FREE!

Once you have completed your order, within 48h you will automatically receive on platform, in your personal area “portfolio” the randomly assigned NFT Domain/s.

You can chose on which blockchain you want to mint on and minting fee is covered by Freename!


Once you have added your favorite items to the cart, you proceed to “checkout” and add your coupon to the “coupon box”.

Said coupon will instantly do its magic and your due total will drop!


How does it work?

Once you have completed your order, you will automatically receive on platform, in your personal area “portfolio” the randomly assigned NFT Domain value $50 or if you’re lucky a randomly assigned TLD with value $699 (between these: .immersive; .multiverse; .freelancer; .cashback; .hologram)

you can chose on which blockchain you want to mint your NFT Domain/TLD on and minting fee is covered by Freename!


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Why do i Need a Wallet?

Freename domains are blockchain-based assets and would be minted and stored using a wallet. Users are required to mint and manage their domains using a Metamask or Coinbase-configured wallet. It must be a non-custodial wallet, meaning that one must own the private keys to the wallet in order to approve transactions via a signature.

To benefit from Freename Web 3 domains/TLDs, you must have a wallet. This is because Web 3 domains/TLDs are blockchain-based assets. Users can mint and manage their domains using Metamask or Coinbase-configured wallets.

Keep in mind that it must be a non-custodial wallet. You own the private keys to the wallet (in order to approve transactions via a signature).

Are the Domains Associated with ICANN?

ICANN does not manage domains. believes their TLDs/domains must allow customers to operate independently. wants to build a utility infrastructure, allowing customers to use their services for valuable and generative purposes. By leveraging blockchain technology, Freename Web 3 domains/TLDs have no centralized authority imposing rules and regulations.

What is a Wallet?

Every blockchain user requires a wallet in order to interact with the network. A wallet is essentially an account on the blockchain where transactions can be sent and received. It is also where one can store blockchain assets such as cryptocurrency or NFTs (non-fungible tokens). There is no personal information associated with a wallet and none is required to create one. A wallet consists of a public key and a private key. The public key can be safely shared with anyone who wishes to send assets to the corresponding wallet, however, the private key should not be shared and is the key to accessing the wallet in the event where access is lost or to create another instance.

A crypto wallet (cryptocurrency wallet) is software or hardware that enables users to store and use cryptocurrency. With cryptocurrencies, there isn’t any actual money to carry around in a wallet. They exist on the blockchain. Similarly to traditional bank transfers, crypto wallets enable users to send and receive cryptocurrencies, NFTs, etc.

A wallet consists of a public key and a private key. To receive assets, you share your public key associated with your wallet. You should NEVER share your private key.

How do i Claim my Earnings from Freename

ou can withdraw revenues generated passively through a cryptocurrency transfer. Connect your cryptocurrency wallet and, once your withdrawal request is confirmed, the desired amount is pulled from Freename’s reserves and conveniently delivered to you!

Claim your earnings by following these steps:

  1. Connect your cryptocurrency wallet to
  2. Request a withdrawal
  3. Receive request confirmation
  4. Receive withdrawal directly to your wallet.

Can i Transfer Domains?

Yes. The domain is stored in your cryptocurrency wallet and can be transferred by you after you have minted it. Access your portfolio, select the TLD or Domain you wish to transfer and type the recipient’s address. Afterwards, you must paste the OTP code you received by mail to confirm the transaction. Keep in mind that currently, it is not possible to import the domain that has been transferred, but it will be possible soon!

Yes. Domains are transferable ONLY after a TLD/domain has been minted and stored in a user’s wallet.

To transfer the TLD (or domain), the user must:

  • Access their wallet
  • Select the item they want to transfer
  • Enter the recipient’s address.
  • Confirm the transaction by pasting the OTP received by email

In the future, will support importing domains that have been transferred.

What about Trademarks?

Registering a trademark on your Freename Web3 TLD will allow you to protect your web3 TLD and your logo worldwide juridically.

From the moment you deposit a trademark request, your web3 TLD will be protected worldwide for 6 months awaiting for the Swiss Federal Institute of Intellectual Property ( to confirm and register the availability of your TLD.****

A trademark is any symbol, phrase, or word that allows customers to identify a company’s goods or services. Freename is a web3 domain/TLD provider that also provides trademark registration.

A user must reach out to the trademark department to register a trademark. To get your trademark filed for review at the Swiss Federal Institute of Intellectual Property, a user must provide the following:

  1. Complete a Know your customer (KYC)
  2. A list of TLDs they wish to trademark
  3. Proof of payment

Once these conditions are met, it takes one week for the trademark to be reviewed and logo/TLDs to be provided with six months of worldwide protection.

Is Minting the same as Buying?

Purchasing a TLD (or domain) on Freename and minting it on the blockchain are two distinct steps. When you purchase a TLD (or domain), the transaction is recorded in Freename’s database and not on the blockchain. Minting a TLD (or domain) on the blockchain requires a second step: log into the user’s personal area, select the TLD (or domain) and press “mint TLD” (or domain): done! Don’t worry, once you have purchased a Freename domain, no one can take it away from you!

No. Buying and Minting a TLD/domain are two different things.**

Buying **is the process of recording a transaction on Freename’s database and not on the blockchain.

Minting is the process of pushing a user’s domain from data onto the public ledger of a blockchain and into a user’s wallet. Giving the user full control over the TLD/domain.

It is very easy to mint a domain/TLD once you purchase it. Simply:

  • Log into your personal area
  • Select the TLD (or domain)
  • Press “mint TLD” (or domain)

What is Domain Minting?

Minting is the process of publishing a Freename domain (or TLD) on the blockchain via your wallet to gain full custody of the domain. This means that the only person that has control over the domain (or TLD) is the person who controls (has access to) the wallet.

Minting is the process of pushing a user’s domain from data onto the public ledger of a blockchain and into a user’s wallet. Giving the user full ownership over the domain.

Minting on is as simple as the following steps:

  1. Go to the website
  2. Enter the TLD/domain you want to buy in the search bar
  3. Add the TLD/domain to your cart
  4. Go to checkout
  5. Create a account
  6. Purchase the TLD/domain with cryptocurrency or a credit card
  7. Go to “portfolio and incomes.”
  8. Click on mint TLD/domain

Which domains are Protected?

Protected domains and TLDs are domains and TLDs that we’ve detected are associated with a brand, organization, or notable person. We believe it is important to increase adoption for the next generation of the internet by helping to onboard brands into the Web3 era. If you are interested in applying for a Protected domain, please contact us.

TLDs/Domains associated with a notable person, brand or organization are considered Protected Domains. Protected domains help onboard brands in Web 3 increasing adoption. Protected domains also protect users from others impersonating/stealing their domains.

Reach out to to apply for a protected domain.

Why use Freename?

Freename domains are unique by their very nature: only with Freename you can register domains with unique TLDs for your digital identity while passively earning money! is not only the leading TLD and Domains platform in Web 3, but also lets users generate passive income!

Owning a Freename Web 3 TLD entitles users to receive passive income whenever a domain is bought on their TLD. Users can register and mint TLD/domains of their choice if available.

What is a Domain?

A domain name is a string of letters and/or numbers that points to the IP address of the corresponding website. Generally, it is easier to remember a name than a long string of numbers.

A domain name is an address that people type into a browser bar to find a website. It consists of a Top-Level Domain (TLD), everything that comes after the dot, and the Second-Level Domain (SLD), everything that comes before the dot.

For example, “” is the domain name, “Freename” is the SLD and “io” is the TLD.

Which Chains are Supported?

Freename has a multi-chain approach. You can choose on which Blockchain to mint your Web3 Domains and TLDs ranging Among Polygon, Cronos, and Binance.

A user can mint a domain/TLD on the following blockchains:

  • Polygon
  • Cronos
  • Binance

Freename plans to expand its multi-chain approach by adding blockchains upon which domains can be minted.

Are there Renewal Fees?

No! Once you’ve bought a Freename Domain or TLD, it’s yours forever, no renewal fees ever!

No. There are no renewal fees on Once a user has paid a one-time payment for a domain/TLD, they own it. Forever.

This is the significant advantage of Web 3 domain/TLD over traditional alternatives.

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